Shoutouts to lae for editing. Still looking for an actually qualified translator to translate this, because I'm not.
The latter, obviously.
lae decided we should translate the names of the honour tiles, so we're doing that now. We'll also v2 episode 1 with a better encode and actual editing at some point.
In case anyone was confused as to what "tsumo" means, it actually means a bunch of different things. If your hand is completed with the tile you draw on your turn and you have at least one yaku, you may declare "tsumo". This is a necessary condition to score the "tsumo" yaku, which also requires that your hand is entirely concealed ("menzenchin").
Some translations of the common Japanese mahjong rules make a distinction between the concepts of "concealed" and "closed", which we'll try to follow. The former is a property of a group of tiles, whereas the latter is a property of your hand. A concealed triplet ("ankoutsu" or "ankou") requires all three tiles to have been drawn by yourself, rather than having called "pon" or "ron", and likewise for a concealed quadruplet ("ankantsu", "ankan"), all four tiles must have been drawn by yourself.
There are two main yaku that depend on concealed triplets/quads, namely san'ankou and suuankou. The former is worth 2 han, and the scoring condition is that you must have three concealed triplets/quads. The latter is a yakuman with the scoring condition of having four concealed triplets/quads. (I glossed over this in last week's TL notes. A yakuman is basically the highest possible score for a hand.) Essentially, for a suuankou, all of the tiles other than the pair must form triplets/quads and have been from your draws. If you have an open triplet ("minkou") or an open quad (shouminkan or daiminkan), that automatically disqualifies you from getting a suuankou. If you call "ron" to complete a triplet with a tile an opponent just discarded, that also disqualifies you from getting a suuankou (but you do score san'ankou, because the other three triplets in your hand are still concealed).
Anyway, with yakuman, hands are scored in a slightly different way. There are two different ways to get a yakuman; first is to directly score one of the yakuman patterns (suuankou, daisangen, kokushi musou, etc.), second is to accumulate at least 13 han through non-yakuman yaku and dora. The latter is called a counted yakuman ("kazoe yakuman") and the number of base points is always capped at 8000 (even if you have over 26 han, for example). However, in the former case, the yakuman scores may or may not stack, depending on ruleset. The in-series rulesets don't use multiple yakuman (yakuman always scores 8000 base points), but sites like Tenhou do make use of multiple yakuman. Regardless, multiple yakuman hands are incredibly rare and this isn't really a consideration for normal playing, unless you're playing with cheaters.